Hey YouTube, Here’s Five Monetization Changes You Should Make for Content Creators

If you haven’t heard of the YouTube adpocolypse, you’re clearly stuck in the Negative Zone. For those not stuck in the Negative zone, it’s been quite tiresome, to say the least, YouTube’s reputation has been falling due to their lack of transparency among other reasons. Video after video has been demonetized with little to no explanation. The issue with YouTube is transparency. I’m not so deluded to think YouTube will hear my opinions, but I do have recommendations I think YouTube should implement to finally address the mistrust that is growing. This isn’t a commentary on the political or social controversies that YouTube is also under fire for, I’ll leave that to those with more knowledge to debate. I only want to address transparency issues and how YouTube can fix these problems.

Check out my video request of YouTube Here and Share


My channel is quite small, but that is irrelevant to this topic. I have over 15 years’ experience in Information Technology operations support. I understand what goes into providing a service that is reliable and trusted by the users who utilize those services. I also understand how quickly and devastating bad service and lack of transparency can be to a service. I see many of these mistakes being made by YouTube right now.
Over the last 12 months, I’ve had several videos demonetized, be it temporarily or permanently. I am hardly alone experiencing demonetization. This doesn’t have a big impact on me, since my channel is so small. For those with large channels, however, the loss of money while waiting for a manual review is becoming insurmountable for some. If you’re not familiar, YouTube has been tweaking their monetization algorithms, and adding a new monetization classification. The new classification includes a yellow icon which indicates your video is currently receiving limited or no ads, which means you might not be receiving advertisement revenues while in this state. This means your video is either considered not suitable for most viewers or it doesn’t meet the criteria for advertiser-friendly content. YouTube, however, doesn’t feel the need to inform you, or give you specific details of what’s in the video causing the issue.

It has become clear YouTube does not find it necessary to keep content creators informed. Instead, these demonetization actions just happen. The only way to know it happened is by scrolling through your content to see the monetization status to find those that have changed. Yes, there is a new view filtered to only show de-monetized content, but this is not enough.

I won’t explain the process to request a manual review in detail, but it’s a single step process where you click the manual review link, then wait and hope while you watch the critical first 48 hours of your video being publish just ticking away. Instead, let’s get into what I hope YouTube will do to address these transparency and trust complaints I and others have with the platform.

First, we need notifications. As a creator, I need to know as soon as my video monetization status changes. I used to get the copyright violation e-mails, but I’ve yet to get a notification when the monetization status changes. This shouldn’t be hard to implement, assuming the back-end software is written efficiently. Notifications can be as simple as an e-mail, an alert in the notifications, or a new dashboard widget displaying alerts. This change alone would provide an immense amount of transparency and give creators control of their channels. There have been numerous cases in which videos published years ago end up demonetized. Without a notification, a content creator must constantly check their content to ensure all videos are green. A simple notification would go a long way to increasing trust and transparency between creators and YouTube.

Second, content creators need details about these violations. Currently, we have the general definition of the status, nothing more. How about you, YouTube, give us what category our video matched which warranted it being flagged? Your algorithmic system clearly has this information or it couldn’t flag the videos; output that info into the notification you provide. This too, shouldn’t be that difficult to do. As a creator, it would be invaluable to know what to look for in my video so I can make a decision whether I want to modify my video or not. This information would give creators actionable information to decide whether a manual review is truly warranted or not. This can save both the content creator and YouTube time and money.

Third, give us the timestamp where the violation is. Assuming the processing is automated and algorithmic, YouTube should be able to store the timestamp and include this information in the notification provided. I shouldn’t have to explain why this information is useful, but clearly, I do. Finding the potential violation to determine if it’s legitimate. Right now, it’s like finding a needle in a haystack, except you don’t know if it’s a needle a joke, a political reference, or some other arbitrary thing. We have no idea what we’re looking for, or where it is in the video. Your software is already scanning through the video, storing the timestamp when a match is found should not be out of reach technologically.

Fourth, don’t assess strikes against channels for content that was once compliant and now is not. YouTube, you have every right to change your policies and re-certify older content to the new rules, but it is entirely unfair, and I would claim un-ethical, to assess a channel strike after a video had originally been compliant. You’re punishing channels for having content on your platform that no longer follows your guidelines.

Fifth, and likely the most difficult, is that YouTube provide more support options for creators of all sizes. I think a tiered system in which major channel creators would have a more direct and faster access to support services; while the smaller channels. might have to wait longer but if it’s clearly defined and easy to submit a support request and get a response, that would tone down the unrest considerably. As a creator, when you’ve worked on a video for a month all to find the video is not monetized and you have no recourse but a link to click and hope, that just doesn’t set a precedent of trust in YouTube.

I’m not trying to complain, or disparage you, YouTube. I just want you to treat content creators with a little more respect. When there are communication and transparency issues like this I see it as a culture of arrogance driving a wedge between YouTube and content creators. Trust can be lost very quickly and it’s so hard to gain it back. YouTube, you’ve been working to improve, I’ve seen those attempts through your various surveys you’ve put out over the last year. I applaud the efforts, but for how large you are, a lot of us expect so much more. We expect to see innovation. Of all the companies to solve this growing problem, it should be YouTube that can solve it. Perhaps the solution isn’t going to come from your own staff, perhaps the solutions will come from your creators. Listen to your content creators. Please, listen to us.

So You’re Taking This Away From Me?

On April 8th 2016, I got the below e-mail from Microsoft.

The amount of free storage is changing.
Having trouble viewing this message? Click here.
Important changes to OneDrive
We want to inform you about some upcoming changes to OneDrive that will affect you. In approximately 90 days, the amount of storage that comes with OneDrive will change from 15 GB to 5 GB. We are also discontinuing the 15 GB camera roll bonus. As a result of these changes, you will be over your OneDrive storage limit on July 13, 2016 (visit the Storage page to check your account). You can learn more at ourFAQ.
To ease this transition, claim a free one-year subscription to Office 365 Personal.* This subscription includes 1 TB of OneDrive storage.
Alternatively, you can purchase additional storage,** or choose to remove some files.
We realize these are big changes to a service you rely on. We want to apologize for any frustration they may cause you. We made a difficult decision, but it’s one that will let us sustainably operate OneDrive into the future.
Thank you for using OneDrive.
– The OneDrive Team

If you’re not a OneDrive user, this might not affect you directly, but you should understand what is happening here.

What is Microsoft doing?

Well, in a nutshell, they’re taking storage space they previously provided to their users free of charge away.

Can they do this?

Of course they can. It’s not your storage space. You technically owned nothing when you signed up for your OneDrive account.

I’m safe because I’m not using OneDrive, I’m using (Enter any other free storage cloud service) right?

The important thing to understand with all of these free cloud based storage services is that you don’t own anything (except your content) related to the service. You do not own the quota or storage space allocated you. You are simply allowed to use it based on the current terms written by the provider. All of these services will leave open the option to change the amount of free storage they give you.

I should just accept this and move on then?

Yes and no. When I first got this message I was really mad at Microsoft. I’ve had a Onedrive (formerly Skydrive) account for a really long time. I haven’t had the need to buy any storage space for my account because of these extras they were giving me. I have paid for storage for my other Onedrive account that my wife and I share for our family photos etc. My own personal account was sufficient at the free level.

Now, I’m not sure what I’m going to do. I understand what they’re doing, to a degree, but I still believe what Microsoft is doing is really nasty. It feels much like a bait and switch scheme. Why? Well, if you are offered for free, a considerably larger amount of storage space over all the other services, you’re going to have a higher likelihood of switching to this service. Then, once you’ve committed, they take away most of what brought you over. You’re stuck with either paying up, or finding a different service.

I get any of these services could do this. I’m not a lawyer and I doubt they did anything illegal, they’ve got a lot more people working on this stuff to know better. It just seems really shady to take the storage away after you’ve been using it long enough to get yourself stuck in a corner. What are your thoughts? Do you agree? Disagree? Why?

I say this, COME ON MICROSOFT!!! You were really starting to grow on people again, all to go and do this. Shame on you! You’re taking 3 steps back again.

You Know You’re A Nerd When…

You know you’re a huge nerd when… You send jokes to your co-workers complaining about leadership via Lync using fake PowerShell commands.

Wow! It’s getting really nerdy up in here today. 🙂

Joke of the day today.

Set-SPExpert -Identity “Leadership” -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

Wow! That’s so bad.

Run Like You Mean It!

I used to be a runner. I long to be a runner again, but until I can get my Plantar Fasciitis healed, I’m relegated to sitting on the sidelines watching everyone else run. This provides me the opportunity to see a lot of people run… and judge them. 🙂

My biggest pet peeve is people who run like they’re tired. Perhaps you’re one of them. It doesn’t matter if you’re on mile 26 or you just started a 1 mile run, you’re running like you’re out of breath and your body is about to collapse in sheer exhaustion.

What’s the deal? Don’t you know that running is like 150% mental? That if you allow your body to think it’s tired, then your body “will” become tired? I see so many people jogging with their heads bobbing like their melon is so heavy it should have its own sidecar so you can just wheel it alongside you. I guess you also put on your lead shoes because your feel are doing the drunken shuffle too.

Come on! Hold your head high. Pick up your stupid feet, and for the LOVE OF PETE, run like you mean it!!!

Don’t run tire until you are tired, and then, even then, STOP RUNNING LIKE YOU’RE TIRED. If you’re going to mentally get through whatever distance you’re running, don’t shoot yourself in the foot by tricking your body into thinking it’s tired. When I was able to run, I was constantly telling myself things like “I could run for days like this” or “Man, I have so much energy.” I was trying to trick my brain into believing what I was saying and it usually worked. I never had a training run or race that I had to end early due to “being too tired to finish.” That’s not to say I didn’t get tired, but the mental aspect of those situations required me to lie to myself to get my body to do what I wanted.

I know, I’m probably being too judgy of others, but when you can no longer run, it makes it really hard to see people squandering their ability. I get it, some of these folks I’m judging could be experiencing even worse injuries than I and for those, I apologize. I doubt very many of those I see though, have anything holding them back from running a little taller, a lot stronger, and light years faster.

Weight Loss Challenge – Day 63 | That’s Just Gross!

It’s day 63 of my weight loss challenge. I’ve had a really tough time keeping up with the blogging portion of my challenge. I promised myself I would write a post every day. Well, it’s been 63 days and I’ve only written 36 posts. It’s over 50% but still, not so great when it comes to what I tried to commit myself to. Luckily, my diet plan has been much better than 50%. I’m going to try my best to do better on the journal side of this challenge.

That’s Just Gross, Now Knock it Off!

I did my workout today which wound up being 30 minutes of Rowing. I managed to get 6,900 meters and burned 421 calories according to the little computer. I could calculate my actual estimated calories based on my weight, but I don’t feel like it. Any, like any normal human, I went to take a shower. As I am cleaning up, I hear the dude in the stall next to me hock a loogie. Not just a simple cough and you know a little surprise comes up kindof cough. No… This was a good 20 second clearing of the throat with a grand finale spit… plop! That’s right, he hocked that disgusting mass right into the drain. Well, let me pause here for a moment… I hope he made it into the drain. We’ve all seen it before, someone doesn’t make the drain. My problem with this is that it’s disgusting to know, if I didn’t have shower shoes, I might have to step on that just to take a shower. Even worse, I probably wouldn’t know that someone had done it, unless I see the full extent of their nastiness laying there. What I may be stepping on, is simply the remnants of their mucus blob.

But you know what? Hock-eye wasn’t done. No, he proceeded to gurge up two more delightful mucus truffles. Not only that, he felt the need to make the loudest noises ever just to get them all up. But wait… There’s more… He also blew his nose right in the shower.

In my book, it’s not ok to spit, blow your nose, or urinate in the showers. I don’t care that the shower floor is constantly being bathed in soap. It’s also soap that is laden with the dirt and grime that’s flowing off your body, so no, I don’t buy that the floor is constantly being cleaned. So please, knock it off! Seriously, it’s disgusting. I’m just happy I have some shower shoes to wear in there.

For those of you who don’t wear any type of footwear in your gym’s showers, or bathrooms, take it from me, and get some right away. It’s disgusting in there, and my gym is immaculately clean compared to some I’ve been in.

10 Reasons I Will Punch You in the Throat at the Gym

I’ll be honest, I get cranky when I’m working out hard. I’ve discovered I have an extreme case of Exercise Rage. It is an epidemic just waiting to happen and I blame my mother for getting me vaccinated as a baby. I’m sure that’s what caused it. When I’m at the end of my energy reserve, this list of people is at an even greater risk of receiving a throat punch. This list is in order of hate. Enjoy.

10. The Cats Meow – Ok… I don’t hate you at all, but i hate that you flaunt your perfectly sculpted body in front of me wearing those skin tight yoga pants (Thank you to whomever made these popular). I hate that i can’t help but stare as you do the most provocative stretches 5 feet in front of me as i work on my 60th set of chest press lifts. I hate you because i can’t have you, and even worse, you do not want me. I hate that if, and when, you catch me checking you out, you will immediately think I’m the biggest perv in the world. I’m admiring your work, don’t you see that? I’ll probably get in trouble for this one. Oh well. Advice, please don’t stop. .. I love everything about you.

9. Mr. Know-It-All – You’re the guy that thinks it’s your responsibility to correct ones form in Amy exercise. If you’re not an employee, just leave me alone

8. Lifeless Loiterer – You love going to the gym; you never workout though. To you, this is social hour. You’ll interior anybody you know while they workout just to find out how their vacation was, or worse, to let me know how yours was. There’s a reason i didn’t make eye contact with you, you miserable troll. Advice: Take a hint and keep walking.

7. The Rain Forest – I feel bad for hating you, but I cannot help it. You sweat so much, it makes me want to throw up. You’re seriously leaving pools of sweat where you just were. I know, it’s not right to hate this person, but all too often, you also don’t clean up after yourself. So I don’t just hate the super sweaty guy; I hate the super sweaty guy that never wipes down the equipment when done. Seriously, you deserve to be suffocated by your own sweat rag after it sopped up your disgusting Lake Superior of sweat you just left on this bench. Advice: Go get some ShamWow towels and make yourself a new workout outfit before you come back here again.

6. Gossy Goose – Get off your phone you Troglodyte!

5. Tony Too High – Tony, I can only assume you went to school in the 60’s or 70’s, but did you have to keep those teenie tiny shorts that have that slit on the sides that even the NBC halftime show wouldn’t air? I get wanting to be comfortable, but how about the rest of us? Tony, you’re probably a runner, and a good one, but seriously, knock it off. It’s gross.

4. Grug the Caveman – You’re the fellow who grunts exceptionally loudly while doing your clean n’ jerks and while you’re lifting weights, then drops the weights making me have flashbacks to ‘Nam, and I wasn’t even born yet. I don’t hate the meat heads who stare at themselves in the mirror more than working out. Grug, I hate you because you don’t need to be that loud. When you’re that loud, you break everyone else’s concentration. You may be working out the hardest in the whole place, but do you really need to let it be known? I don’t mind grunting, or the accidental release of the weights. It’s the intentional stuff. Advice, next time you’re about to push that last 400 lb squat down to the sweet spot, picture a short little fat guy… PUNCHING YOU IN YOUR STUPID THROAT!!

3. Grandma Agnes – I love grandmas, and I’ve loved every woman named Agnes that I’ve met (One), but I call those of you ladies who douse yourself in perfume, so as to mask any potential displeasing smells you may omit while working out, that you truly cause the exact issue you’re trying to prevent. You need to realize, it’s ok to smell a little when you work out, but purposely smelling like the potpourri truck on a hot summer day is not meeting your needs.

2. Sasquatch – No, you’re not hairy, but you smell like you’ve never had a shower… EVER. You don’t believe in washing your clothes and your natural body odor smell is so repulsive it makes me literally gag. I see your strategy, you’ve got a huge personal space bubble, and clearing the cardio floor is your end game. Advice, get a hose and a match and burn those clothes and wash your disgusting self.

1. Whoo Boy/Girl – You know who you are. You’re the one who insists on whooping and hollering whenever anything is happening. I get it, you’re trying to show your enthusiasm, your energy, and help others get motivated. Problem is, you’re too loud, it startles me and makes me lose my focus. Plus, it’s so annoying. It sounds like fake energy. You sound like the moron who thought coming up with Ice-breakers at a conference would actually be fun. To me, your constant jokes to the instructor that nobody gets, or your incessant need to clap off beat to the songs, or dance in place on your bike, among many other annoying things you do, just makes me want to rip your face off, and I would, if I wasn’t so tired. Some of us don’t reciprocate well to your stupid antics. Do us all a favor and shut the F$%k up. I hate you.

Disclaimer: Please take with a grain of salt, this is not meant to be entirely serious

Winner winner, Chicken Dinner!

Iconic SummerPepsiCo has just rolled out yet another promotional campaign  for their Pepsi and Mountain Dew product lines. They are calling it, “Iconic Summer” and you can win prizes up to tickets to the Super Bowl or World Series etc. Let me preface this with a statement that I don’t think these promotional campaigns are bad, but here is my beef with them.

I hope there is nobody on the face of the planet older than, let’s say 13, (sorry 12 and unders) that believes these random codes found under the caps of our favorite soft drinks (if you drink Pepsi or Mountain Dew) are actually going to give us a truly fair shot like the “look under the cap” games of yesteryear used to. Remember the days when you could open a bottle of soda and find out instantly you won another soda. You could then take that cap to your local soda pop stop and redeem that cap for an ice cold refreshing soda? I remember that, it was awesome. They used to do it with the 12oz pop cans too. Ah… those were the days.

The Illusion of random chances to win is just that, an illusion.

Enter Code

Now, I have to log into a website and enter a 10 digit code and then wait for the site to tell me what prize I’ve gotten no closer to winning. Don’t get me wrong, this is still slightly fun, until you realize, there is no randomness to this game anymore.

I’ve been playing for about a week so far and I’ve purchased quite a bit of Pepsi (not because of the game, but because I’m entirely addicted to the beverage and assume I will be replacing the last drop of my blood with syrup soon if I can) and I have quickly collected all of the required “Icons” needed except for 1 for each of the 5 Pepsi prize options. I’ve gotten 13 icons thus far. I have every single “common” icon as indicated below and zero rare icons. Ok, so that’s fine, but then when I ask myself, what are the odds of getting a rare icon and here is what you get below (See Official Rules).

Icon Rules

That’s right, I don’t get to know the odds. Based on their assertion, there is no way of knowing the odds. It used to be the odds were slapped right on the product. One in 12 wins. It was based on the number of products produced that were “specially marked” and thus they could determine that x number of products would be instant winners and x number would be large prize winners. Now, it’s based on the number of players and how they are seeded from start to finish. What does that even mean? With this information I’ve lost all trust that the codes mean anything until I register it and they determine, nope he hasn’t bought enough product yet so let’s give him another common icon until he’s bought the sufficient amount.

Luckily, I’m buying because I’m thirsty and apparently not health conscious (I buy Diet though *snark snark*) so I don’t feel as though I’m being duped because of the promotion, maybe I’m being duped because I’m not making healthy choices, but that’s a different post altogether.

So, long story short, COME ON!!! Give us back our instant win game caps and throw us a bone from time to time, or, at the very least, predetermine the icon each code will equate to before it goes out on the trucks and let us have a little feeling that we might be able to actually randomly win something.

I reserve the right to retract any and all negative thoughts in this post should I win tickets to the Super Bowl or the World Series and I will replace those comments with, “Neener-Neener.”

You Can Be Anything You Want… REALLY?

MP900309635The United States is the land of dreams. It is the most powerful and successful nation on the planet, and we as Americans know it. We’ve been told throughout our lives that we can be anything we want. You just have to work hard.

Is that really true?

Should we really be telling high school graduates they can do anything they want? It is really true that you can be anything you want in this economy? I ask this for a couple of reasons. I do believe you can still be or do anything you want in terms of a career, but I’m just wondering if you should.

Did he just say we shouldn’t strive to do or be what we want?

Yes, and no. When it comes time for a high school graduate to consider their career path, they are presented a wide variety of options. Most of which are respectable career options. The problem is, society doesn’t need most of those fields to succeed. YIKES!!!

Are you saying society doesn’t need me?

Nope. Society needs everybody to contribute. Society also needs a well balanced blend of different walks of life or careers. So yes, society does need History majors, Art majors, Literature majors, etc. The problem is, those fields are not in high demand. They also, in times of economic uncertainty, are fields that will often be cut first, because they are not crucial to the survival of the human race or society. (Some will protest this observation and I welcome the debate).

The problem I see is that we have been grooming our graduates to pick any field they have an interest in and just go for it, without giving them the true tools needed to analyze the likelihood of success in that field. Am I saying that we want to tell the next Picasso or Tolkien to pick a more lucrative field? No, but let’s be realistic. There are shortages of workers in many good fields that will benefit both the employee and society.

So what are you proposing?

Well, I know this is a larger topic than I can grasp, and my small minded solutions will not address the big picture issues of all unemployed college grads, but here is my solution.

Stop subsidizing college education for fields that there isn’t a demand for and start providing more assistance for those fields that have a true worker shortage due to lack of skilled workers to fill those positions.

Let’s just drop financial aid options or drastically cut them for non-essential fields and pile that money on the fields that are truly needed such as:

  • Education
  • Information Technology
  • Medicine
  • Energy
  • Engineering
  • Sales
  • Manufacturing

This is just a few, and these fields have huge gaps in terms of the number of actual skilled workers available to fill the open positions.

I’m not saying we should eliminate the other fields and I also don’t want to make it harder than it already is to get into these other fields, but we as a society really need to start pushing the future workers of this nation to fields we need. Then, if you still decide that an Art degree from some private college is worth the extra money, that’s all on you and I wish you all the luck.

I want to make sure that I haven’t offended on purpose those of you who have chosen careers in any of the fields I’ve mentioned. If you are currently working in those fields I applaud you and am glad you’ve made it work. I’m talking to those who have gone into the field all to find there are no jobs available and weren’t likely to be any jobs. Wouldn’t it have been nice if someone had told you before you did it? Or did they tell you and you just didn’t listen?

Dilemma of a Slow Reader

Slow Reader
I have a problem. I keep finding more and more books that I want to read, but being such a slow reader, I don’t know how I’m going to get through every single one of these books. Yes, this is a dumb thing to care about, but still, I look at my books to read list (now up to 82) and I am slightly annoyed that I just cannot read any faster than 1-2 books a month.

I’ve tried skimming, but I just don’t feel that involved in the story then. I don’t skip anything either, as I would then worry if I missed some important nugget of information that would change the whole story.

Alas, I am thus, stuck with a huge queue and nothing else to do but some cleanup or some prioritization. I think I’ll start by prioritizing. If that doesn’t help, then it’s time to cleanup the list.

So, those of you out there with the same problem, how do you deal with the queue creep?

Inflated Expectations or Slope of Enlightenment?

I used to work for a small school district and it saddens and often sickens me to see so many schools spending so much money and so little time planning a district wide implementation of technologies. This includes iPads but isn’t specific to just iPads. I have found that many districts simply choose to implement these tools because someone else did. There are a lot of egos getting in the way of the education of our youth today.

Many administrators truly have little to no knowledge of what social media or personal devices such as the iPad can actually do, let alone how taxing on an already weak infrastructure they can be. They simply want it. Teachers have a hard enough time keeping their students on task let alone disciplined. Now add in a bunch of tools that have no management capability out of the box and you’ve got a nightmare on your hands.

I hope for our children’s sake these schools figure it out soon. A lot of money is being thrown at technology in hopes it will engage the students more so they can learn better. A great teacher can engage more students than a $10 app can and shame on Apple for not focusing more attention on that fact. Instead they are riding the hype cycle playing on the flat out inexperience of many school administrators when it comes to technology in education, and there are far too few IT Professionals willing or able to convince them that these are not well thought out ideas.

”]Many of these early adopter schools are going to quickly fall into the Trough of Disillusionment regarding their revolutionary idea to implement a half-baked tool. These tablet devices are not suited for a business or learning environment until management features such as those noted below can be offered out of the box.

  • Multi-Profile Support
  • Central Permissions/Security Management
  • Central Software/App Deployment/Management
  • Central Update Management
  • Non-Platform specific Apps for mixed environments
  • Lower prices
  • Remote Connection Capabilities
  • Discontinued Need for Sync to other computer

Apple is one of the worst in my opinion because they are making a push to get themselves deep into the education sector with no accountability on their part. What Apple should be doing is donating money to the Department of Education to go towards the continuing education of our teachers. Then they should slash the prices of their equipment/software for schools in half. Until they do this, I have no respect for the company. Schools are not the consumer world. They are spending yours and my tax money and they are wasting it on gaming devices and incomplete un-managable software/devices that is attempting to monopolize education.

It’s time people start questioning their school officials over spending on frivolous ideas. If your district seems to have a big new technology project every year, perhaps you should ask for some results from the previous project.

It’s time school officials were held accountable for poor choices.